Viewpoint: ADHD Isn’t A Metaphor

With all the alarmist reports about a rise in rates, we'd be wise to remember that it's a developmental disorder, not a symptom of societal ills

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Let’s say that rates of ADHD diagnoses among kids in America are continually rising. Let’s say that stimulant medication use — both prescribed by doctors, and as the result of illegal trade with friends —  is on the rise, too. What do we make of that information? What do we do with it? In particular, how do we use it to improve children’s and teenagers’ lives?

The answers speak volumes about where we are as a society and where we ought to be headed.

The default response, every time we get news about any sort of uptick in the diagnosis and treatment of children’s mental disorders, is to issue condemnations of bad parents, bad doctors, bad teachers, and bad schools. (Not to mention big bad pharma, of course, which, it seems, will never rise from the bed of nails it has built for itself  over the years.)

A more thoughtful response would be to ask what the rise means. Are more children with the disorder who previously went unnoticed — girls, African Americans, Latinos, notably — now being identified and counted? We know that’s true, and it accounts for some of the rise. Does the increased social acceptability of the ADHD diagnosis mean that it’s the “label” doctors are most likely to stick on kids who, in addition to distractibility, have a whole host of more scary-sounding problems, in the hope of getting reluctant parents to sign on for some sort of treatment? Does the decreased stigma surrounding ADHD (the commonly-heard, “everyone has it, so it’s no big deal” view) mean that parents who’ve been told their kids have “attention issues” in addition to, say, a learning disability or a mood disorder, will cling to — and report to survey-wielding researchers — just the banal-sounding ADHD label?

(MORE: The Myth of the Overmedicated American Teen)

And, much more troublingly, are children who don’t have the disorder now being diagnosed and treated for it? And, if so, where is this happening, how is it happening, and why?

The raw, unanalyzed, not-yet-peer-reviewed numbers that the New York Times, bizarrely, led the paper with last week don’t answer any of those questions. And since the CDC won’t verify their accuracy (precisely because they haven’t yet finished processing their own numbers), I’m not going to repeat them here. And I don’t need to. Previous surveys have shown a steady rise in the rate of ADHD diagnoses over the years. Previous research has also raised disturbing questions about the possibility that some children without actual ADHD are now being diagnosed and medicated for it.

But again, that research, for now, hasn’t provided any clear indication of what’s happening with those kids. Another recent CDC study — one of the largest, community-based, epidemiological studies ever conducted on ADHD prevalence — found last fall that that only about one-third of the children taking medication for ADHD met stringent criteria for the disorder . Exactly what that troubling finding means remains a mystery, Susanna Visser, the lead epidemiologist for the Child Development Studies team in the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities at the CDC, and one of the study’s co-authors, told me last week. It may, she said, mean that the medicated children who didn’t meet the study’s ADHD criteria did, in fact, have the disorder, and were having their symptoms controlled so well by meds that they were no longer discernible. Or it could mean that they were just misdiagnosed. “One group may have been appropriately treated and no longer met criteria and one group may have been inappropriately treated,” Visser said. The medicated children, over all, she added, “had a higher symptom count than those who were not medicated and didn’t meet criteria.” Visser’s CDC team is investigating those possibilities right now, and expects answers in the not-too-distant future.

(MORE: Is There Really A “Boy Crisis”?)

In the meantime, given the paucity of truly meaningful information, we might pause a moment to consider the effect — the actual, lived effect — of our current cultural obsession with ADHD and the stimulants used to treat it. Let’s take, for example, Alan Schwarz’s comment in the New York Times last Monday that “an A.D.H.D. diagnosis often results in a family’s paying for a child’s repeated visits to doctors for assessments or prescription renewals. Taxpayers assume this cost for children covered by Medicaid, who, according to the C.D.C. data, have among the highest rates of A.D.H.D. diagnoses.” Will this lead to a new round of Congressional hearings on the Medicated Child? Will those hearings comprise any real discussion of the toxic stressors of poverty — conditions long-known to contribute to mental health disorders, including ADHD — or, even more unlikely, to policy solutions that could reduce stress for impoverished families? Or will the focus on the pill-popping young poor simply lead to more roadblocks to treatment for a particularly vulnerable group of children — and parents — already deprived of access to good mental health care?

I wonder, too, what will happen to the children who don’t exhibit the most extreme forms of disruptive, socially and academically debilitating, ADHD: the big temper outbursts, the potentially dangerous, running-into-traffic hyperactivity, the bully-bait social cluelessness. I wonder, if, soon, insurers will decide they’re not entitled to treatment (especially the more expensive, non-drug treatments). I wonder if school districts will decide they don’t qualify for accommodations.

Many of us, myself included, worry deeply about the culture in which our children are growing up. We worry about the pressures, the competition and the class sizes, the lack of free time, the cloistered indoor time, the screen time, the stress. And we worry about the extreme measures some kids are using to cope with that stress: whether it’s cutting, or binge-drinking, or abusing stimulant meds. But ADHD isn’t about all that. It’s a developmental disorder — and while it’s true that its precise definition is linked to all sorts of values and understandings unique to our time, it is not a symptom of social pathology. It is a medical condition, not a metaphor.

If we truly care about kids — all kids — we’d do well to keep our stories straight.

MORE: The Denial of Mental Illness Is Alive and Well

32 comments
AntoineDesormesJr.
AntoineDesormesJr.

Living with ADHD is no walk in the park. The reason ADHD is now being taken more serious is because of the number of adults who slipped through the cracks when they were children. Trust me, I know.

VeryNotReally
VeryNotReally

ADHD is a subject in which many have opinions, but few of those opinions are informed. People love to spout off about bad parenting or society or laziness, but if you ask them to tell you exactly how ADHD manifests in the brain or symptoms other than not being able to sit still, they go silent. There is none so loud as an ignorant opinion.

You don't believe in ADHD? Fine. Just know you're going against every major medical association in the world.

mrbomb13
mrbomb13

As a teacher, there is nothing (behavior-wise) that annoys me more than the students who use their "ADD/ADHD diagnosis" as a crutch.  All of a sudden, every single bad behavior, random outburst (etc.) becomes excusable.  Any attempt to raise issues with the parents, school psychologist, or school administration result in the same reply:  There is nothing that the student can do about it, so deal with it as best you can.

That creates a sour status quo for non-special education teachers, because it makes us shoulder the burden of the student's psychological issues.  If those students cannot control themselves in a regular education classroom, than they should be removed to a resource room.  Don't give me that nonsense about maintstreaming, inclusion, etc., etc..  If the child cannot control himself, he needs to be placed in an environment with someone who can impart the wisdom and training.  As regular education teachers, that's not our job.

JoseGrecko
JoseGrecko

It's all bad parenting. There is no ADD or ADHD. Bad parenting turns to psychology. Kid does not want to sit for 6 hours in a chair in school 5 days a week? Must be something wrong with him! Does not want to listen to a professor drone on and on? Drug him! The parents here saying otherwise just do not bother to parent!

Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn would have become Adam Lanza in today's psychology induced hysteria due to bad parenting, psychology and mind-altering drugs!

Hsage1212
Hsage1212

My son has ADD. If you knew him you would know it isn't a miss diagnosis. He is 18 and a senior in high school. What a struggle this life has been. I know as a child I also was diagnosed with ADD and was on medication when I was a kid. I also believe whole heartedly my husband has it but never was diagnosed properly.  But I do believe there are a lot of people that are diagnosed having ADD or ADHD but don't really have it. I hear people loosely walking around saying they have ADD or ADHD without a diagnosis. Over diagnosing or loosely saying they have this is a disserves to the ones that truly suffer from this.  This condition is a big deal not to be taken lightly. It has affected all parts of my sons life and mine also. I often wonder about his future. We have never had the money to help my son properly.  We are classified middle income, but a lot of insurances don't cover seeing doctors for this. I truly have been lost.

disinterested3rdparty
disinterested3rdparty

Whatever you do, dont call it bad parenting and poor discipline.  Call it a disorder.  The Asian families are laughing at you.

jacksparks3
jacksparks3

a friend of mine abused prescription amphetamine salts aka what they are pumping those kids full of

then switched to street meth

told me later the prescription version was stronger

its not good to be pumping kids full of these substances

commentonitall
commentonitall

The answer to what is happening is American culture.  There is no accountability and no discipline or structure anymore.  Kids do not fear authority because there is none, therefore they act like animals.  It's really quite simple.

TristanHyams
TristanHyams

I have seen numerous suggested ideas pointing out that our day-in-day-out technology use maybe related.  It wouldn't surprise me in the least, but I doubt anyone would "research" this thoroughly simply because of the consequence every business, and even the government,would have to deal with knowing how it influences the developing brain.

AmandaPotvin
AmandaPotvin

@mrbomb13 i agree but dont be such a  B>>>>H about it... i have a son with adhd and he is currently being placed in regular class...he did in fact start off in a  "special class" to use adhd as an excuse is the easy way out.......but your not any better describing yourself as an regular education teacher,,,, whats your excuse, Ur telling me when u went to university or college u weren't prepared to deal with such disability... but trained to point out a girl with knotty hair and consider it child abuse??? If you cant deal with a child with special needs or the as such perhaps my dear you shouldnt be a teacher... they are after are living breathing humans, perhaps if your class wasnt so boring those gifted children that need change to keep going wouldnt be so freakin  board....  perhaps  its the teachers that need a wake up call not these children.. . 

AmandaPotvin
AmandaPotvin

@JoseGrecko u have no education to make such a statement go take some psychology and come tell me differently then

AmandaPotvin
AmandaPotvin

@jacksparks3 ive been getting my son help since he was about three... he had a sever receptive delay and expressive delay on top of that was held back a year as a specialist suggested. my sons first year of school this year, and has started meds... since than he has recently been placed in a regular class (slowly) and his delay is mild to mod...  did the meds help him to focus??? o i think so... ppl who dont live with a child as such have no idea....


John
John

I worked in a technical field and the joke was that if you think about testing for something and you won't like one of the possible answers, don't run the test.

EricaTjelta
EricaTjelta

@JoseGrecko @AntoineDesormesJr. Do you also think nearsightedness is a load of crud?  Could those people get along as well as anyone else if the would just "grow some" and squint a bit harder at the page?  I'll bet nearsightedness was the invention of money-grubbing opticians who duped people into thinking they needed glasses--and people went along with it because they were too lazy to crack down on their kids and MAKE THEM read from just as far away as the other kids. Yup. Nearsightedness... What a joke!

mrbomb13
mrbomb13

7) I would be interested to view your peer-reviewed research that supports your assertion that, "teachers need a wake-up call."  After all, one of the best ways to learn is through each other.

mrbomb13
mrbomb13

6) There is no correlation or causal relationship between how "boring" a class is, and how effective a given lesson is for a special needs student. If you have studies or statistics that suggest otherwise, I would be interested to see them.

mrbomb13
mrbomb13

5) While special needs students are, "living breathing humans," that does not mean a regular ed. teacher can render the instruction and pedagogy they need. Again, only a trained professional can meet with those students one-on-one, and really address all the necessary critical areas.

mrbomb13
mrbomb13

4) The ability (or inability) to "deal with" special needs children is in no way reflective of a regular ed. teacher's skills or professional qualities. I again repeat my assertion that regular ed. teachers do not receive the training that special ed. teachers do. Therefore, we are not qualified in the areas where they hold studied expertise.

mrbomb13
mrbomb13

3) Please understand that identifying a potential child abuse situation v. identifying a special needs student are two entirely different things. The only thing in common between the two is that regular ed. teachers can report their suspicion.

mrbomb13
mrbomb13

2) Please understand that the training is different for regular v. special education teachers. Special Ed. teachers are exclusively trained to work with special-needs students, and to provide adequate instruction for their situation. Likewise, regular education teachers are trained in regular Elementary (K-6) or Secondary (7-12) grades. In fact, Secondary teachers must specialize in a single subject (i.e. Math, Social Studies, etc.).

The point is that a regular ed. teacher is not qualified to do a special ed. teacher's job, and vice-a-versa. At most, regular ed. teachers can recommend a student for psychological evaluation. To do anything beyond that (i.e. diagnose/attempt to treat a student) would be grounds for revocation of our teaching certification. For that reason, regular ed. teachers are not prepared to deal with disabled students.

mrbomb13
mrbomb13

First, thank you for your thought-provoking reply.  Since it appears that TIME deleted by prior comments, I will re-write them here, and re-insert them part-by-part (since TIME did not approve the original full-length submission).  With that being said,

1) Ad hominem attacks have no place in a formal discussion.  Please refrain from such attacks in the future.

JoseGrecko
JoseGrecko

@AmandaPotvin @JoseGrecko Waah! I am a bad parent and drug my kids, so rather than be a good parent I will attack those who are my betters! Waah! More education than you fella! And guess what...only idiots point to education as a sign of intelligence. Most of the real idiots I know have doctorates.

mrbomb13
mrbomb13

How do you know what education he received?

jacksparks3
jacksparks3

@AmandaPotvin @jacksparks3  

thats good that it works for your son

dont forget what it is . . . . pure speed

check the story on the front page of CNN today about the older man who ended up killling himself because of prescription amphetamine abuse

peace

 

EricaTjelta
EricaTjelta

@mrbomb13I believe she means Jose has (obviously) had no education on ADHD. She's arrived at this conclusion because his statements show he has no awareness of the proven and accepted cause of ADHD; make it clear he has no grasp of the actual symptomatology of ADHD; and reveal he has no understanding of the effect medical treatment has on ADHD.  What other conclusion should she draw from such statements?